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Thursday, September 25, 2008

Link between Biochemistry and Immunotechnology

The syllabus offered for MSc Biochemistry and Immunotechnology can share at several places in the subject. The entire Two first year semester syllabus is common to both courses. The third and Fourth semesters have change in the course pattern.

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

MSc Immunotechnology Syllabus


MSc Immunotechnology 2008-2010 Batch onwards.



Unit I (Physical Chemistry, Microscopy and Centrifugation methods))

Biological relevance of pH, measurement of pH, pKa of functional groups in biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids. Importance of buffers in biological systems, ion selective electrodes, and oxygen electrode. Donnan membrane equilibrium. Significance of osmotic pressure in biological systems, viscosity and determination of molecular weight using viscometers.

Microscopy: basic principles of light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy.

Sedimentation methods: Basic principles of centrifugation, preparative, differential and density gradient centrifugations, analytical, ultra centrifugation, applications in the determination of molecular weight, purity of biomolecules and detection of conformational changes of biomolecules.

Unit II (Radiobiology)

Radioactivity: half-life, decay constant, average life, units of radioactivity,

Radioactivity measuring techniques, and correction factors. Statistics of counting

operations, Radiation dose units, Roentgen, REP, REM maximum permissible dose, dosimetry and dosimeters; radiation monitoring hazards, Biological effects of radiation, Isotope dilution technique and its application in biochemical investigations. Radioisotopes in biochemistry and medicine. RIA.

Unit III (Chromatography and electrophoresis)

Theoretical principles, methodology and biochemical applications of separation methods: Counter current distribution, Paper, Thin layer, Reverse phase, absorption, ion exchange, and gas chromatography, affinity chromatography, Gel filtration, HPLC, Electrophoresis: Paper, agar, immuno electrophoresis, high voltage electrophoresis, isoelectrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing, Capillary electrophoresis, iso tachophoresis, Northern blot, Southern blot, Western blot Analyses and development of blots.

Unit IV( Spectroscopy)

Spectroscopy: Electromagnetic radiations, Beer-Lamberts law principles and

applications of colorimetry, spectrophotometry. Concept and biological application of UV, fluorimetry, flame photometry, AAS, AES, Infrared, ESR, NMR spectroscopy, Polarimetry, CD & ORD. Principles and applications of X-ray Diffraction.

Recommended Books:

1. Principles and Techniques of practical Biochemistry. Eds. Williams and Wilson.

2. Techniques in Molecular biology Ed. Walker & Gastra, Croom Helm, 1983.

3. Principles of instrumental analysis, 2nd Ed, Holt-Sanders, 1980.

4. An introduction to spectroscopy for Biochemistry. Ed. Brown S.N., Academic press

5. Analytical Biochemistry, Holmes and Hazel peck, Longman, 1983.

6. An introduction to practical biochemistry. David T. Plummer, Tata Mac Graw Hill.

7. Biophysical chemistry, Edshall & Wyman, Academic press Vol II & I.

8. A textbook of quantitative inorganic analysis including elementary instrumental

Analysis, Vogel ELBS 1969.

9. Biochemical calculations Seigel, IH, 2nd Edit, John Wiley & sons Inc., 1983.

10. Analytical Biochemistry by Friefelder David


Unit – I (Amino acids and Proteins)

Amino acids & Proteins: Classification of amino acids, acid-base properties of amino acids, chemical reactions of amino acids, non-protein amino acids, Peptide bond –Structure and conformation. Peptide synthesis – reactive ester method and Modified Merrifield solid phase peptide synthesis. Naturally occurring peptides.Classification of proteins – purification and isolation of proteins, criteria of purity of proteins, physico-chemical properties, structural organization of proteins, Elucidation of primary structure, secondary structure, -helical, beta-pleated sheet structure and triple helical structure, Tertiary structure –Domains-Alpha, alpha / Beta, and Beta and others. Forces involved in stabilization of tertiary structure. Tertiary structural features of lysozyme, and chymotrpsin. Quaternary structure – Hemoglobin, Denaturation & renaturation of proteins

Unit II (Carbohydrates and Lipids)

Review of stereochemistry of biomolecules.Carbohydrates: Definition and classification of carbohydrates, nomenclature,Reaction of Monosaccharides, Acid derivatives of Monosaccharides amino-sugars,Oligo saccharides, structure, properties and importance of Homo & Hetero polysaccharides, Mucopolysasccharides, Bacterial cell polysaccharides, lectins, Blood group substances.

Lipids: Classification, Physical and chemical properties of fatty acids. Characterization of natural fats & oils, structure and biological role of triaceyl glycerol, phospolipids, sphingolipids, Gangliolipids, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, Leukotrienes and steroids.

Unit III (Nucleic acids)

Nucleic acids: Isolation, fractionation and characterization of nucleic acids, properties of nucleic acids in solution, structure of nucleic acids – primary – purine and pyramidine bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides; secondary & Tertiary structure of DNA;

structure of RNA – Secondary and Tertiary structure; Nucleic acid sequencing – rapid sequencing methods. Higher orders of DNA & RNA Structure, chromatin structure; Gene analysis – southern blot technique and its variance.

Unit IV (Heterocyclic molecules)

Structure of porphyrins; Protoporphyrin, porphobilinogen properties Identification of Porphyrins, Structure of metalloporphyrins – Heme, cytochromes and chlorophylls.

Recommended Books:

1. Glycoproteins by Hughes R.C., Chapman & Holl, 1983.

2. Biochemistry – Mechanisms of metabolism Cunningham, E.B., Mc Grew – Hill, 1978.

3. Nucleic acid – Chargaff & Davidson Vol. II.

4. The biochemistry of Nucleic acids; Adams et al., Chapman and Hall, 1986.

5. Proteins: A guide to study by physical & chemical methods, Haschemeyer and

Haschemeyer, Wiley, New York, 1973.

6. Proteins: Structure, function and evolution. Dickerson & Geis, 2nd Edn,

Benjamin / Cummings, Menlo Park, California 1983.

7. The proteins: Neurath and Hill, 3rd Edn. Academic New York, 1977.

8. Biochemistry - Zubay C, Addison – Wesley, 1986.

9. Biochemistry, A problem Approach, 2nd Edn. Wood, W.B. Addison Wesley 1981.

10. Biochemistry of Lipids and Membranes - Vance D, Addison-Wesley, 1985.

11. Biochemistry, Lehninger A.H.

12. Textbook of Biochemistry West, E.S., Todd, Mason & Vanbruggen,


13. Principles of Biochemistry White-A, Handler, Pand Smith E.L. Mc Grew Hill.

14. The carbohydrates: Pigman & Hartman Vol. II-A & II-B.

15. Comprehensive biochemistry-Florkin & stotz, Academic press.

16. Organic chemistry, I.L. Finar, ELBS. (1985).

17. Organic chemistry by J.P. Cohen. Vol. 3 Edward ‘Arnold.

18. Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry by Roberts & Cashino (Benjamin).

19. Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Donald Voet (1999).

20. Organic Chemistry by Morrison and Boyd (2000) Prentice Hall.


Unit I (Cell Morphology)

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells: Structure, Composition and functions of nucleus, mitochondria plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, glogi, lysomes, vacuole, micro bodies, ribosomes, cytoskeleton, Functional anatomy of GIT.

Unit II (Blood elements)

Circulatory system: Formation and composition of blood. Total and differential counts in blood. Development of erythrocytes, and leukocytes. Platelets. Plasma proteins Blood clotting mechanism. Erythrocyte sedimentation Rate.

Unit III (Membranes and properties)

Biomembranes: Chemical composition of Membranes, Composition of plasma and organelle membranes of animal and plant cells. Lipids, proteins and Carbohydrates of membranes Distribution of membrane lipids. Assembly of membrane components.

Molecular structure of membranes: Miscelle, and liposomes, biological membrane; Symmetry of the membrane; Membrane fluidity; fluid mosaic model of biological membranes. Biosensors.

Unit IV (Membrane transport mechanisms)

Membrane Transport: Donnan membrane equilibrium, Diffusion across cellular membranes Mediated transport; Energetics of transport systems; Passive transport anion exchange proteins; Active transport; Active transport of Na+ K+ (Sodium potassium ATPase) Ca2+(Ca2+ - ATPase). Active transport of sugars coupled to Phosphorylation; group translocation (Y-Glutamyl cycle). Proton motive force in bacterial transport processes. Ionophores Gap junctions; Endocytosis, Exocytosis. Nature of receptors.

Recommended Books:

1. Molecular Biology of the cells by Alberts et al (1994).

2. Cell and Molecular Biology (2001) by EDP de Robertis and EMF de Robertis.

3. Text Book OF medical physiology by A.C.Guyton (2001).

4. Cell and Molecular Biology 2nd Edit. (2002) By P.K.Gupta, Rastogi Publ.


Unit I (Circulatory and excretory systems)

Circulation of blood. Cardiac cycle, Capillary and venous blood flow. Blood pressure Electrocardiogram Blood gas transport and gaseous exchange in tissues. Acid-base balance in lungs. The value of blood pH, PO2, PCO2, Measurements.

Excretory system structure and function of Nephrons. Urine formation; GFR, reabsorption and secretion. Composition. Normal Inorganic and organic constituents abnormal constituents of urine. Acid-base balance equilibrium maintained by the Kidney.

Unit II (Muscle and Nervous system)

Muscular system: Types of Muscular tissue; structure of striated muscle fiber molecular organization of contractile systems, mechanism of muscle contraction, Regulation and energetics of contraction. Role of calcium.

Nervous system: Outlines of organization of nervous system; blood-brain barrier; Nerve growth factor. Origin of membrane potential. Mechanisms of propagation of nerve impulse of synaptic transmission. Myelin sheath – composition and function; biogenic amines amino acids and Peptides; Neurotransmitters. Transmission at cholinergic adrenergic nerve endings.

Unit III (Elements of Nutrition):

Body weight and the body composition. Determination of body fat and body water. Body composition during growth and energy requirements. Measurement of energy expenditure, direct and indirect calorimetry, Respiratory quotient and BMR.Protein nutrition. Essential and non-essential amino acids. Nitrogen balance, methods of calculation of biological value of proteins protein calorie deficiency. Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. Fats as component of diet, Energy value of fats. Essential fatty acids and phospholipids in nutrition.

Unit IV (Community nutrition and deficiency symptoms)

Requirement of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins and their deficiency symptoms, sources of the vitamins. Macro and trace elements in nutrition as regards to dietary sources. Deficiency symptoms and recommended dietary allowances. Special aspects of Nutrition for the infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman and in old age, Importance of Nutrition under stress conditions.

Community, Nutrition and Health: Assessment of Nutritional status of community. Anthropometric measurements, clinical examination. Radiological, Biophysical and Biochemical techniques.

Recommended Books:

1. Molecular Biology of the cells by Alberts et al (1994).

2. Cell and Molecular Biology (2001) by EDP de Robertis and EMF de Robertis.

3. Text Book OF medical physiology by A.C.Guyton (2001).

4. Cell and Molecular Biology 2nd Edit. (2002) By P.K.Gupta, Rastogi Publ.

5. Food and nutrition volumes



1. General reactions of carbohydrates. Specific reactions of different sugars: arabinose, xylose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose and lactose.

2. General reactions of proteins and amino acids. Precipitation reactions of albumins and globulins.

3. General reactions of lipids and cholesterol.

4. Isolation and estimation of cholesterol from brain.

5. Isolation and estimation of glycogen/starch.

6. Preparation of Casein from milk.

7. Crystallization of albumin.

8. Estimation of proteins in biological samples:

a. Biuret method.

b. Folin-Lowry method.

c. UV method.

d. Bradfords dye binding method.

9. Titration curve of amino acid and calculation of PK and PI value.

  1. Estimation of amino acids by formal titration.
  2. Estimation of amino acid by Ninhydrin method.
  3. Estimation of tyrosine by Million’s –reaction.
  4. Identification of N-terminal group of proteins by Sanger’s method.
  5. Estimation of fructose in Fruit-juice.


1. Effect of solvent system on the Rf value of two solutes using TLC.

2. Separation of purines and pyrimidines by Paper Chromatography.

3. Separation of amino acids by Paper Chromatography.

4. Separation of sugars by TLC.

5. Isolation & Characterization of Brain Lipids by Solid phase extraction and TLC.

6. Separation of amino acids by Paper Electrophoresis (Demonstration).

7. Separation of amino acids by Ion-exchange Chromatography (Demonstration).

8. Separation of Serum proteins by Paper Electrophoresis.

9. Measurement of pH of a biological fluid using pH meter.

10. Absorption spectra of phenol red, amino acids and nucleic acid.

11. Verification of Beer’s law and determination of molar extinction coefficient using p-nitro phenol.

12. Isolation and spectrophotometric characterization of plant pigments.

13. Isolation of Mitochondria from Rat liver by density gradient centrifugation


14. Viscosity measurement of Bovine serum albumin.

15. Measurement of inversion of sucrose by Polarimetry.

16. Measurement of refractive index of Biological sample.

17. Dialysis.

Recommended Books:

1. Hawk’s Physiological chemistry

2. Practical Biochemistry by T Plummer

3. Practical Biochemistry by J Jayaraman

4. Klemir and others: practical Biological chemistry.

5. Practical Biochemistry – Koch and Hank Dunn and Drell.

6. Practical Biochemistry-Sawhney (2000)

7. Varley’s Practical clinical Biochemistry – Ed. Alan W. Gowenlock (Heinemann Medical Books, London, 1988.

Semester - II


Unit I( Enzymes and their kinetics)

Nomenclature and classification of enzymes according to I.U.B. Convention, specificity and active site. Fundamentals of enzyme assay – enzyme units, coupled kinetic assay. Enzyme localization, Isolation, purification and criteria of purity. Profile of enzyme purification by different separation techniques. Elements of kinetics – Reaction rates transition state theories free energy change. Methods used in the investigation of kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions – Initial velocity studies and rapid reaction techniques (Continuous flow and Stopped flow). Enzyme kinetics of single substrate reactions, study state assumption, Michales-Menten (Briggs-Haldane), Lineweavar Burk, Eadie Hofstee, Hanes plots. Pre-steady state kinetics. Effect of pH and temperature.

Unit II (Enzyme inhibition studies)

Enzyme inhibition: Types of reversible inhibitors – competitive, non-competitive, un-competitive mixed inhibition and partial inhibition. Substrate inhibition, Feedback

inhibition and allostearic inhibition. Irreversible inhibition. Bisubstrate reactions, Sequential mechanism compulsory order and random order mechanism, non-sequential mechanism, Ping-pong mechanism. Chemical nature of enzyme catalysis: General acid – base catalysis, electrostatic catalysis, covalent catalysis, intermolecular-catalysis, metal ion catalysis, and proximity and orientation.

Unit III (Specific enzyme, vitamins and their mechanisms)

Mechanism of reactions catalyzed by the following enzymes – Chymotrypsin, Trypsin, Carboxypeptidase, Ribonuclease and Lysozyme. Co-enzymes – the mechanistic role of the following co-enzymes in enzyme catalyzed reactions – Nicotinamide nucleotides, Flavin nucleotides, Co-enzymes A, Lipoic acid, Thiamine pyrophosphate, Biotin, Tetrahydrofolate and Co-enzyme B12. Modern concepts of evaluation of catalysis-catalytic RNA (Ribozyme), abzymes (catalytic antibodies), Synzymes (Synthetic enzymes), Site-directed mutagenesis.

Unit IV(Oligomeric enzyme mechanisms and their kinetics)

Monomeric enzymes – the Serine proteases, Zymogen activation, Oligomeric enzymes – Isoenzymes (LDH) and multienzyme complexes (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex). Covalent modification (Glycogen phosphorylase, Glutaminesynthase, Chymotrypsin) Allosteary of enzyme action; Binding of ligands to proteins Co-operativity, the Hill Plot for Myoglobin and Hemoglobin, Sigmoidal kinetics: The MWC and KNF models. Significance sigmoidal behavior. Study of ATCase a typical allostearic enzyme.

Recommended Books:

1. The enzymes Dixon & Webb, 3rd ed. Longman 1980.

2. Understanding enzymes: Palmer T., Ellis Harwood ltd., 2001.

3. Enzyme kinetics: Roberts D.V., Cambridge Univ. Press 1977.

4. Enzyme structure and mechanism. Alan Fersht, Freeman & Co. 1997

5. Principles of enzymology for food sciences: Whitaker Marc Dekker 1972.

6. The enzyme Boyer 3rd edit. Academic Press.

7. Methods in enzymology Ed. Colowick and Kaplan, Academic Pr (Continuing series)

8. Text book of Biochemistry with clinical correlations (4th edition)-Thomas M.Devlin.

9. Fundamentals of Enzymology 3rd edi. Nicholas C. Price and Lewis Stevens (1999).

10. Biological chemistry; H.R. Mehler & E.H Cordes Harper & Rev.

11. Enzymes and metabolic inhibitors Vol. I & II J. Webb Acada. Press.

12. Enzyme kinetics Siegel interscience – Wiley 1976.

13. Biochemistry chemical reactions of living cells (2001) David E.Matzler.Vol.I.

14. Enzyme catalyzed reactions by G.H. Gray, 1971.


Unit I (Bioenergetics)

Bioenergetics: Thermodynamic principles – Chemical equilibria; free energy, enthalpy (H), entropy (S). Free energy change in biological transformations in living systems; High energy compounds. Energy, change, oxidation-reduction reactions. Organization of electron carriers and enzymes in mitochondria. Classes of electron-transferring enzymes, inhibiters of electron transport. Oxidative phosphorylation. Uncouplers and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. Miotrochondrial transport system. Microsomal electron transport; Photorespiration, cyclic and non-cyclic reactions; photochemical events associated with pigment system – II and I. Utilization of oxygen by oxygenases, Superoxide dismutase and catalase.

Unit II (Methods used in intermediary metabolism, )

Broad outlines of Intermediary metabolism, methods of investigation, Intermediary metabolism in vivo studies such as analysis of excretion, Respiratory exchange, Removal of organs and perfusion studies, in vitro studies such as tissue slice techniques; Homogenates and purified enzyme systems; isotope tracer studies, use of inhibitors and antimetabolites.

Unit III (Metabolism of carbohydrates)

Metabolism of carbohydrates: Glycolysis, Fermentation, Feeder path ways (of fructose, galactose and mannose), TCA cycle, HMP shunt, Regulation of glycolysis, pyruvate dehyraogenage complex, and TCA cycle.

Uronic acid pathway, metabolism of amino sugars, metabolism of glycogen, starch, sucrose, lactose, glycoproteins. Gluconeogenesis, glyoxylate cycle. Regulation of glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Futile cycles in carbohydrate metabolism. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism – Glycogen, lactose, Fructose.

Unit IV (Metabolism of Fats)

Biosynthesis and degradation of fatty acids (Saturated and unsaturated) regulation, metabolism of TAG, Glycerol and sphingolipids, cholesterol, prostaglandins. Biosynthesis and degradation of cholesterol and its regulation. Metabolism of lipoproteins and Ketone bodies.

Recommended Books:

1. Principles of Biochemistry, White. A, Handler, P and Smith.

2. Biochemistry, Lehninger A.L.

3. Biochemistry, David E. Metzler.

4. Biochemistry, Lubert Stryer.

5. Review of physiological chemistry, Harold A. Harper.

6. Text of Biochemistry, West and Todd.

7. Outlines of Biochemistry, Conn and Stumpf.

8. Metabolic pathways – Greenberg.

9. Mitochondria, Munn.

10. Biochemistry, 2nd Edition, G. Zubay.


Unit I (Nitrogen cycle and fixation)

Nitrogen cycle, Non-biological and biological nitrogen fixation, Nitrogenase system. Utilization of nitrate ion, Ammonia incorporation into organic compounds. Synthesis of glutamine and regulatory mechanism of glutamine synthase.

Unit II (Protein and amino acid metabolism)

Metabolism of proteins and amino acids: Introduction, General metabolic reactions of amino acids. Degradation and biosynthesis of individual amino acids in animal, plant, and microbial systems. End products of amino acid metabolism - Krebs Haslett urea cycle. Regulation of amino acid biosynthesis.

Unit III (Derivatives of amino acids)

Amino acids as biosynthetic precursors- Formation of creatine, Seratonine, histamine, polyamines, melatonine, GABA, melanine, catecholamines. Biosynthesis and degradation of porphyrines (Heme), porhyrias. Non-ribosomal peptide synthesis-glutathione, cyclic antibiotics (gramicidin).

Unit IV (Nucleic acid metabolism)

Metabolism of Nucleic Acids: Synthesis and Degradation of Purines and Pyrimidines, Synthesis of Nucleotides and its regulation.

Recommended Books:

1. Principles of Biochemistry, White. A, Handler, P and Smith.

2. Biochemistry, Lehninger A.L.

3. Biochemistry, David E. Metzler.

4. Biochemistry, Lubert Stryer.

5. Review of physiological chemistry, Harold A. Harper.

6. Text of Biochemistry, West and Todd.

7. Outlines of Biochemistry, Conn and Stumpf.

8. Metabolic pathways – Greenberg.

9. Mitochondria, Munn.

10. Biochemistry, 2nd Edition, G. Zubay.


Unit I (Chromosomes and genetic material)

Genetic material – Direct and Indirect evidences of DNA as genetic material, experimental proof. Evidences of RNA as genetic material – eg. Virus.

Chromosome - Chromosome and genes, chromosomal replication, genetic mapping of chromosomes, structure of chromatin - nucleosomes and higher orders of organization, chromosome banding, transposition in human chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities.

Unit II (Genes and structure)

Gene – arrangements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gene structure in eukaryotic organisms, introns, exons, pseudogenes, and gene clusters, spacers, repetitive sequences. Single and multiple copy genes in eukaryotes, eg – Histones, Alu, copia, satellite. Mapping of human genes – techniques used, assignment of important genes. Gene regulatory mechanisms and cell memory.

Cell cycle and its regulation – Mechanism of recombination, extra nuclear inheritance.

Unit III (Bacterial genetics)

Bacterial genetics – Bacterial chromosomes, plasmids – fertility, resistance, colicinogenic and other, PBR 322 and other synthetic plasmids - isolation and uses. Transposable

genetic elements, transformation, transduction, and conjugation in bacteria. Linkage map of bacterial chromosome. Recombination in bacteria.

Structure of Bacteriophages and their use in the study of molecular genetics – lytic cycle- replication of T- phages, Lysogeny and its regulation. Transduction – specialized, generalized and abortive. Transfection and cosmids. Fine structure analysis of T- phages, Benzers work and concept of cistrons.

Unit IV (Mutations)

Mutation – Types of mutations, mutagens, mechanism of mutation, Mutagenesis, induction and isolation of mutants.

Recommended Books:

1. Molecular Genetics by D Friefelder

2. Cell molecular biology, Albert Bruce

3. Gene VII by Lewin

4. Molecular cloning by Maniatis and Co Vol I, II, III

5. Genetics by Gardner

6. Genetics by Suzuki

7. Molecular genetics by Klug and Cummings

8. Cell and Molecular Biology 2nd Edit. (2002) by P.K.Gupta, Rastogi Publ.



1. Amylase from Saliva.

2. Urease from Horse-gram.

3. Acid phosphatase from Potato.

4. Alkaline phosphatase from Serum.

5. Cholinesterase from Blood.

6. SDH from Liver.

7. Invertase from yeast.

8. Trypsin

9. LDH from Serum (Isoenzymes).

10. Enzyme purification and enzyme kinetics (Determination of Vmax, Km and Ki). Effect of pH, Temperature, Activators, Inhibitors. Immobilization of enzymes (demonstration only).

Recommended Books:

1. Hawk’s Physiological chemistry

2. Practical Biochemistry by T Plummer

3. Practical Biochemistry by J Jayaraman

4. Klemir and others: practical Biological chemistry.

5. Practical Biochemistry – Koch and Hank Dunn and Drell

6. Practical Biochemistry-Sawhney (2000)

7. Varley’s Practical clinical Biochemistry – Ed. Alan W. Gowenlock (Heinemann Medical Books, London, 1988.


1. Isolation of DNA from bacterial, plant and animal cells.

2. Estimation of DNA by Diphenylamine method.

3. Isolation RNA from yeast cells.

4. Estimation of RNA BY Orcinol method.

5. Estimation of DNA and purity determination by UV absorption method.

6. Determination of melting temperature (Tm).

7. Isolation of plasmid DNA from E.coli.

8. Detection and differentiation of open circular, linear and closed covalent circular

plasmid DNA by submarine gel electrophoresis.

9. Transformation of E.coli with ampicillin resistant plasmid.

10. Trasfection of M13 DNA into E.coli JM103.

11. Isolation of phage M13.

12. Isolation of single and double standard M13 DNA.

13. Conjugation: Use of broad host range plasmid RP in demonstrating conjugational transfer of plasmid bacteria.

14.Catabolite repression: Evidence of B-Galactosidase induction in presence of lactose in E.coli lac strains.

Semester – III

M.Sc.IMT – 301: MICROBIOLOGY (303/304 B BCH IE)

Unit I (Classification and structure of cell)

Microorganisms and their place in the living World; Historical developments of microbiology (Spontaneous generation, Germ theory of disease and Koch’s postulates). Nomenclature and broad classification of bacteria as per Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology; General characteristics of Actinomycetes, Rickettsiae, Mycoplasms, Spirochetes. Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Ultra structure of bacterium. Bacterial cell wall, capsule, cyst, external appendages, cytoplasmic inclusions, nuclear material, ribosomes, and endospore.

Unit II (Nutrition and culture of microbes)

Nutritional requirements in microorganisms: Modes of nutrition – phototrophy, chemotrophy, methylotrophy, organotrophy, mixotrophy, saprophytic, symbiotic and parastitic modes of nutrition. Isolation of microorganisms – Direct and indirect; Methods of maintenance of culture. Growth and kinetics of bacterial cells; Normal and biphasic growth curve, batch and continuous cultures, chemostats.

Unit III (Regulation of microbial growth)

Control of microorganisms: Fundamentals of control, control by physical and chemical agents. Antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic agents. Microbiology of Food, Water, Sewage and Biogas. Water and Sewage treatment. Food and water-borne infections, Bacteriological and Viral standards of water. Estimation of BOD and COD and their importance. Ames Test.

Unit IV (Viruses)

Introduction to Virology: Classification, Morphology, size, ultra structure and life cycle of some representative viruses (TMV, T4, SV40 and M13). Methods of culturing of viruses, Isolation, purification and characterization.

Recommended Books:

1. Microbiology by Pelczar, Chan and Krieg 5th edn. 1995 Mc Grew- Hill.

2. General Microbiology: Boyd, R.F., Times Mirror/ Mosby college, 1984.

3. Review of Medical Microbiology: Jawetz et al., 16th edn. Maruzen Asian, 1984. 4. A Textbook of Microbiology, R.C.Dubey and D.K.Maheswari, S.Chand Co (2001).

5. Pharmaceutical Microbiology, By Hugo and Russell, Blackwell Scientific


6. An Introduction to Viruses by S.B.Biswas, Vikas Publishing house.

7. Microbial World (5th Edn, 1987) RY. Stanier, Hamshire-Macmillan Press.

8. Microbiology 4th edition, Prescott, Harley, Klein (Mc grew Hill)

9. Principles of Microorganisms – Brocks.

10.Diseases of Crop Plants – G.Rangaswamy.

11. Plant pathology – J.C.Walker.

12. Fundamentals of Microbiology – M. Frebisher.

13. Text book of Microbiology – William Burrows.

14. Biology of Microorganisms – Sandes T. Lyles

15. Instant notes in Microbiology- Nicklin et al (2001)

16. Microbial Ecology – Atlas (2001).

17. Biotechnology: Textbook of Industrial microbiology 2nd Edit. By Wulf Crueger and Anneliese Crueger (2000).


Unit I (Outlines of Immunology)

Introduction: Scope of Immunology, Historical background of Immunology, Biological aspects of Immunology, Self and non-self recognition, specificity, memory of immune system.

Antigens: Essential features of Ag, haptens, Carrier molecule, Immunological valence, Antigenic determinants. Adjuvants: Freund’s complete and incomplete.

Antibodies: Nature, Primary structure of immunoglobulins, light chain, heavy chain, variable region, constant region, Hinge region; Enzymatic fragmentation of Ig. Domain structure of Ig and significance; Classification of Ig: Types – IgG (G1, G2, G3 & G4), IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE (Origin, structural functions).

Theories of Ab formation: Instructive, selective, clonal selection theories.

Unit II (Types of Immunity)

Immunity: Types: Active and passive immunity. Cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity, immune response; primary and secondary response.

Phagocytosis, mechanism of phagocytosis.

Interferon: Types of Interferons.

Null cells: Natural Killer cells.

Complement system: Nature, components of compliment pathway.

Pathways: Classical and alternative pathways. Compliment fixation tests.

Unit III (Hypersensitivity Reactions)

Hypersensitivity (HS):

Type I: Allergies and anaphylaxis – IgE, Mast cell degranulation, biologically active agents released in Type I reactions, Clinical manifestations.

Type II: Antibody mediated HS reactions; Mechanism, pathogencity and cases of type II reactions; Hemolytic-disease of new born (HDN).

Type III: Immune complex mediated HS reactions: Mechanism & pathogenecity of type III reactions. Soluble immune complexes and insoluble immune complex mediated reactions. Arthus reaction, Serum sickness.

Type IV: Delayed type (or) cell-mediated HS reactions; Mechanisms and pathogenecity, Tuberculin reaction.

Type V: Stimulatory HS reactions. Mechanism and pathogenecity, Grave’s disease.

Blood groups: AB, Rh system, Lewis-Luthern systems, significance, practical application of immuno methodology in blood transfusions, Erythoblastosis faetalis.

Auto immunity: Introduction, Auto recognition, classes of auto immuno diseases. (Hashimoto disease, thyrotoxicosis, Systemic lupus erythomatosis, Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, Rheumatoid arthritis).

Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC)

MHC in mice and HLA in man-fine structure and functions only.

Transplantation: Terminology, Auto graft, Isograft, Allograft, Xenograft, Immunological basis of transplantation reactions, GVH reaction, Immuno suppression, General mechanisms of Immune suppression, Immune suppression, drugs (azothioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin-A, Steroids).

Unit IV (Methods used in immunology)

Immunological techniques: Precipitin curve: Immuno diffusion: One and two dimensional, single radial immuno diffusion, Ouchterlony immno diffusion.

Immuno electrophoresis: rocket immunoelectrophoresis; CIE, Graber and William technique.

Agglutination: Direct and Indirect, Widal test, VDRL test.

Radioimmunoassay: ELISA – Principle, Methodology and applications.

Immuno fluorescence: Direct, indirect and Sandwich.

Recommended Books:

1. Essential immunology- Ivan M. Roitt.

2. Immunology – a short course Elibezamini and Sidney Leskowitz, Alan R. Lisi

Inc. New York, 1988.

3. Immunology III. Joseph A. Bellanti igaku – Shein Saunders International


4. Immunology at a glance J.H.L.Playfeir 4th edn. Blackwell scientific publication


5. Aids to Immunology D.M. Weir Churchill, Livingtons 1986.

6. Fundamentals of Immunology, Myrvik and Weiser, 1984.

7. Fundamentals of Immunology, Bier et al, Springer 1986.

8.Textbook of Biochemistry and Human biology, Talwar G.P. Prentice Hall, 1980.

9. Basic and clinical immunology – Stites et al., 4th edn. Lange 1982.

10. The immunosystem, Mc Connell et al., Blackwell scientific 1981.

11. Fundamentals of Immunology – William C. Boyed (Wiley Toppan).

12. Introduction to Immunology – John W.Kinball.

13. Fundamentals of Immunology – Otto S. View and others.

14. Immunology – D.M. Weir.

15. Immunology – Janis Kuby.

16. Cellular and Molecular Immunology 3rd, Abul K. Abbas Andrew K. Kich man Jordan S. Pober.


Unit I (Replication)

DNA synthesis and repair - Topology of DNA, conservative, semi conservative and discontinuous synthesis of DNA, DNA primer for DNA synthesis. DNA polymerases I, II, III – their role in DNA synthesis. DNA ligase - mechanism of its action and its role in DNA synthesis. Inhibition of DNA synthesis, fidelity of replication. Nearest neighbor frequency analysis. Mechanism of replication of E.Coli DNA. Role of DNA binding proteins – Histones in Eukaryotes, SSB in prokaryotes. Replication of lambda phage DNA, phage T-7 and single stranded DNA, the rolling circle model of replication of DNA.

Unit II (Transcription)

RNA synthesis and processing: RNA polymerases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Molecular composition of prokaryote RNA polymerase. Mechanism of transcription. Role of various compounds on RNA polymerases. Inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Biosynthesis of prokaryotic and Eukaryotic m RNA, r RNA, and t RNA. Processing of RNA- post transcriptional modifications, capping, adenylation and splicing. Role of the hn RNA, sn RNA and sn RNPin processing of RNA.

Unit III (Genetic Code)

Genetic code: General features of the code, Deciphering of the genetic code – Nirenberg and Khorana’s work. Central dogma in the molecular biology and its verification. Colinerarity of gene and protein. Wobble hypothesis and deviation from wobble hypothesis. Mitochondrial genetic code and evolution of genetic code.

Unit IV (Translation)

Ribosomology: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic molecular components of ribosomes. Assembly and dissociation of subunits. Polysomes and organelles ribosomes.

Biosynthesis of proteins: Different stages and components of protein synthesis, ribosomes, m RNA and t RNA. Amino acid activation, protein chain initiation, elongation, and termination. Mechanism of protein synthesis in relation to gene action.

Some aspects of eukaryotic translation. Inhibitors of prokaryotic translation. Post – translational modification of proteins. Synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins – signal sequence hypothesis. Mechanism of translation control.

Recommended Books:

1. Molecular Biology of the gene by Watson

2. Genetics by G Zubay

3. Molecular Biology of the Cell by Albert Bruce

4. Cell molecular Biology by Baltimore

5. Molecular Biology by D Friefelder

6. Molecular Genetics by D Friefelder

6. Genes VII Benjamin Lewin (2000). Oxford Univ. Press. London.

7. Cell and Molecular Biology 2nd Edit. (2002) By P.K.Gupta, Rastogi Publ.


Unit I (Antigen and antibody Characteristics)

Methods used in immunology: Preparation of antigens and antibodies, purification of antibodies, analysis of antibodies and antigens, preparation and uses of various types of vaccines.

Unit II (Methods)

Techniques used in immunology: Types of immunodiffusion methods, Elisa, RIA, Western blot analysis, Electrophoresis and Hybridization techniques, immunohistochemistry, Immunoflowcytometry.Immunofluoroscence.

Unit III (Applications of antibodies)

Applications of antisera in the detection of various diseases. Examples: syphilis and lyme, typhoid, streptococci infections, HIV, various types of Hepatitis

Unit IV (Industrial uses)

Antibody engineering, Catalytic antibodies, antibody immunotherapy, productions of drugs to allergies.

Recommended Books:

1. Harper’s Biochemistry (Latest edition)

2. Immunology by Carpenter (Latest edition)

3. Kubay’s Immunology (Latest edition)

4. Biotechnology by RC Dubay (2001) S Chand and Company, New Delhi.


Unit I: Technical Writing:

Sentence writing, paragraph writing, story writing, review writing, various types of letters writing, critical comments writing.

Unit II: Project Proposal:

Preparation of a research proposal: informal proposal, Modification of informal proposal, submission of formal proposal (includes letter writing). Experimental design and

Collection of results, submission of progress report (year wise) and submission of technical report (Format: Title page, Introduction, Aims of the proposal/research, methodology, results, interpretation of results, references, acknowledgments, budgetary preparation.

Unit II I: Bio-Statistics:

1. Nature of scientific methods.

2. Significance of statistical methods in biological investigations.

3. Sampling techniques

(a) Measures of central tendency

(b) Measures of Dispersion or spread

(c) Probability

(d) Probability distribution

(e) Test of hypothesis (i) X 2 Test (ii) t-test

(f) Simple liner regression

(g) Correlation of measurements.

Unit IV: Introduction of computers and Outlines of Bioinformatics.

Computers: Components, storage devices, graphic devises, concepts of hardware and software, methods and types of networks; Operating systems and programming: Basics of operating systems and types; Basics on bioinformatics and applications of bioinformatics.



1. RBC counts.

2. Total WBC count.

3. WBC Differential counts.

4. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR).

5. Packed Cell Volume (PCV).

6. Estimation of Haemoglobin (Hb).

7. Mean Cell Haemoglobin and Mean Cell RBC volume.

8. Colour Index and Volume Index of RBC.

9. Osmotic fragility of RBC.

10. Raising of antibodies to soluble antigen in rabbits.

11. Immunodiffusion.

12. Single Radial Immunodiffusion.

13. Rocket immunoelectrophoroesis.

14. Cross over Immunoelectrophoresis.

15. Graber and Williams Immunoelectrophoresis.

16. Detection of HCG by latex agglutination inhibition test.

17. Haemeagglutination tests for identification of human blood groups.

18. Detection by viral fever by slide agglutination tests.

Recommended Books:

1. Hawk’s Physiological chemistry.

2. Practical Biochemistry by T Plummer.

3. Practical Biochemistry by J Jayaraman.

4. Klemir and others: practical Biological chemistry.

5. Practical Biochemistry – Koch and Hank Dunn and Drell.

6. Practical Biochemistry-Sawhney (2000)

7. Varley’s Practical clinical Biochemistry – Ed. Alan W. Gowenlock (Heinemann

Medical Books, London, 1988).


1. Handling of Microscopes: Calibration of Microscopes.

2. Sterilization techniques: Autoclaving (Moistened-heat sterilization), Oven sterilization (dry-heat sterilization), Filtration, UV irradiation and Chemical.

3. Preparation of media: For Bacteria and Fungi.

4. Isolation and cultivation of pure cultures: Serial dilution, Pour plate method, Spread plate method and streak plate method.

5. Methods for the estimation of Growth (Growth rate and generation time in bacteria).

6. Staining techniques for bacteria and yeast: Gram Staining, Acid fast staining and Spore staining for bacteria and Methylene blue staining for Yeast.

7. Antibiotic sensitivity test.

8. Oligodynamic action of metals on bacteria.

9. Starch hydrolysis assay for the identification amylase-producing microorganisms.

10. Fermentation: preparation of wine from Grapes, and production of alcohol from molasses.

11. Estimation of alcohol by specific gravity method.

12. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sps) using the paddy straw.

14. Induction of mutation in bacteria using physical and chemical mutagens.

15. Isolation of nucleic acids from bacteria.

16. Water analysis for bacteria and determination of B.O.D of water

17. Observation of Rizobium from root nodules of groundnut plant.

18. Isolation of phages from sewage and quantification by plaque assay.

Recommended Books:

1. Microbiology laboratory Manual 4th Edit. By Cappuccino

2. Microbiology laboratory Manual (2001) by Aneja, K.M

3. Laboratory Manual in Microbiology by P.Gunasekaran (1996), New Age Publ.

Semester IV


Unit I (Basics on gene manipulation)

Cloning and amplification of DNA: Introduction, choice of the organism, use of restriction endonucleases for the production of DNA fragments. Vehicles for cloning - plasmids, phage vectors and cosmids. RNA isolation, preparation and use of cDNAs. Screening and determination of nucleotide sequences. Application of recombinant DNA technology. Oncogenes and their mode of action.

Unit II ( Gene Expression)

Isolation, sequencing and synthesis of genes: Isolation of genes, sequencing of genes, synthesis of genes, Cloning of specific eukaryotic genes and their expression in bacteria.

Operon model: Isolation and chemical nature of repressor. Catabolite repression and role of cAMP and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in the expression of glucose – sensitive operons. Lac operon, His operon, Trp operon of E.Coli. Stringent and relaxed control.

Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Transcriptional control, enzyme induction and repression. Constitutive synthesis of enzymes. Genes involved in regulation, regulatory gene, promoter gene, operator gene and structural genes.

Unit III (Methods of Gene transfer and analysis)

Gene transfer methods and transgenic organisms: Gene transfer methods for animals and plants, Agro bacterium mediated gene transfer, electroporation and particle gun. Trasgenic animals, and transgenic plants

Restriction maps and molecular genetic maps: Restriction mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) Linkage and recombination between molecular and phenotypic markers, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) using PCR, Chromosome walking.

Unit IV (Basics on biotechnology)

Outlines of Biotechnology, Tools used in Biotechnology and Applications of biotechnology in agriculture, veterinary sciences and medical sciences.

Recommended Books:

1. Genes and Probes, A Practical Approach Series (1995) by BD Hames and SJ Higgins. Oxford Univ. Press.

2. Gel Electrophoresis of Nucleic Acids, A practical Approach (1990) by D Rickwood and BD Hames. Oxford Univ. Press.

Refer the books already mentioned for other Molecular Biology courses.


Unit I (Introduction to Immunity)

Introduction to Clinical Immunology: Introduction and maintenance of clinical Immunology/biochemistry laboratory; hazards in clinical laboratory; units; ‘normal range’, reference values. Factors affecting reference values quality control in laboratory – use of external and internal standards; use of WHO standards. Selection of analytical methods. Automation in clinical laboratory. Collection and preservation of specimens. Natural Immunity, a. First Line of Defense innate / nonspecific immunity

b. Adaptive / specific immunity, c. Factors associated with immunologic disease, Components of the Immune System

Immune response to various infectious diseases

Unit II (Immune responses)

Primary immunodeficiencies, AIDS and other acquired or Secondary immunodeficiencies, Auto immune diseases, Animal model for autoimmune diseases. Proposed mechanism for induction of autoimmunity. Treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Unit III (Transplantation Immunology)

Transplantation, Types of grafts, Graft acceptance and rejection, Clinical manifestation of graft rejection, general immunosuppressive therapy, immune tolerance to allografts, clinical transplantation.

Unit IV (Cancer and Immune system)

Cancer origin and terminology, malignant transformation of cells, oncogenes and cancer induction, tumors of the immune systems, tumor antigens, tumor evasion of the immune system and cancer immunotherapy.

Psychoimmunology: Psychoneuroimmunology, Immunomediators, Immunesystem neuroanatomy, Neuroimmunomodulation,

References: Turgons "Immunology and serology" by Mosby Latest Edition 2007

Immunology by Irwin Roitt Latest edition

Immunology by Kubay.

Varley’s Practical clinical Biochemistry – Ed. Alan W. Gowenlock (Heinemann medical Books, London, 1988).

Clinical diagnosis and management by Laboratory methods (John Bernard Henry, W.B. Salunders Company, 1984).

Hand Book of Human stress and immunity by Glaser R and Glaser K (1994)

Psychoimmunology by Schedlowski M (2000).

M.Sc.,IMT – 403/404a: Applied and Molecular Immunology

Unit I (Hybridoma technology)

Immunodiagnostics and preparation of tools: Hybridoma technique, monoclonal antibodies production, myeloma cell lines, fusion of myeloma cells, selection of hybridomas, Screening, purification and application (biochemical research, clinical diagnosis nd treatment) of monoclonal antibodies

Unit II (Industrial applications)

Immobilization of enzymes, Examples and their industrial and clinical applications. Production of DNA antigens.

Unit III (Vaccines)

Vaccines and Subunit vaccines-against Herpes Simplex virus, Foot and Mouth disease, live recombinant vaccines-attenuated (Cholera, Salmonella), Vector vaccines directed against viruses and bacteria. Purified vaccines. DNA vaccines. Antifertility vaccines.

Unit IV (IPR on immunoproducts)

Transgenic organisms and their uses, Patenting, General Agreement on Trade and Tariff {GATT} and Intellectual Property Rights.

Recommended Books:

1. Harper’s Review of Biochemistry.

2. Leninger’s principles of Biochemistry

3. Biochemistry – Lubert Stryer.

4. Fermentation Technology (2nd ed.) Standury (Pergman press)

5. Biotechnology: Textbook of Industrial microbiology 2nd Edit. By Wulf Crueger and Anneliese Crueger (2000).

6. Molecular biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombination DNA.

(1996) Bernard R. Glick and Jack. J. Pasternak (Panima Publishing Corporation)

7. Principles of Gene manipulation: An Introduction to genetic Engineering (5th)

R.V.Old and S.B.Primrose (Blackwell Scientific Publications).

8. Principles of Biotechnology (1985) Alen Weisman (Surrey University Press).

9. Concepts in Biotechnology (1996) Ed., D.Balasubramaian, K.Dharmalingam, J.Green

and K.Jayaraman (University Press).

10. Industrial Microbiology, Miller and Litsowky, Mc Graw- Hill, 1976.

11. Industrial Microbiology, L.E.Casida, JR. New Age International., (1995).

12. Industrial Microbiology (Prescott & Dunn), Ed by G.Reed, CBS Publishers.

13. Immobilized enzymes (1978) by Ichiro Chibata, Halsted Press Book.

IMT 403/404b (IE): Immunopharmacology:

Unit I: Drugs, Drug receptors, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, drug biotransformation, development and regulation of drug, Cholino and adrenoreceptor drugs.

Unit II: Histamines, Serotonins, vasoactive peptides and ergot alkaloids, Immunomodulation therapy, infiltration of cells and their diseases, Immunosuppressive drugs and antibodies, glucocorticoid drugs, malignancy therapy, role of TNFa, Immunoglobulin genes.

Unit III: The einosanoids, Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and related compounds, and inhibitors of these molecules formation.

Unit IV. Nitric oxide and its immunological effects, Drugs used in asthma.

Reference Book: Basic and Clinical pharmacology by BT Katzung, 10th Edn, McGraw Hill Edn, Oxford, 2008

IMT 403/404c (IE): Project work (80 Marks for thesis and 20 marks for viva conducted along with practical examination)



1. Estimation of blood glucose.

2. Estimation of blood urea.

3. Determination of creatinine clearance.

4. Estimation of creatine in serum.

5. Estimation of uric acid in serum.

6. Estimation of serum total protein.

7. Estimation of Serum albumin.

8. Agar gel electrophoresis of serum proteins.

9. Agar gel electrophoresis of serum lipoproteins.

10. Estimation of Serum cholesterol.

11. Determination of SGOT.

12. Determination of SGPT.

13. Estimation of serum calcium.

14. Estimation of serum phosphate.

15. Gastric analysis.

16. Estimation of serum bilirubin.

17. Determination of thymol turbidity.

18. Determination of zinc turbidity.

19. Determination of urine ascorbic acid.

20. Tests for abnormal constituents in urine.

21. Use of diagnostic kits.

Recommended Books:

1. Hawk’s Physiological chemistry.

2. Practical Biochemistry by T Plummer.

3. Practical Biochemistry by J Jayaraman.

4. Klemir and others: practical Biological chemistry.

5. Practical Biochemistry – Koch and Hank Dunn and Drell.

6. Practical Biochemistry-Sawhney (2000)

7. Varley’s Practical clinical Biochemistry – Ed. Alan W. Gowenlock (Heinemann

Medical Books, London, 1988.


  1. Preparation of animal to raise antibodies.
  2. Inoculation of antigen to animal to raise antibodies
  3. Collection of serum from animal and separation of antiserum from blood.
  4. Analysis of titer of antiserum.
  5. Demonstration of antigen-antibody interaction: Ouchterlony method
  6. Direct agglutination reaction: Determination of human blood group antigens.
  7. Demonstration of immunofluorescence technique
  8. Purification of IgG from bovine serum
  9. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis.
  10. Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay: Antibody capture assay
  11. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
  12. Western blot analysis.
  13. Determination of antibody content by Lowry method.
  14. Demonstration of Immunoelectrophoresis

Recommended Books:

1. Hawk’s Physiological chemistry.

2. Practical Biochemistry by T Plummer.

3. Practical Biochemistry by J Jayaraman.

4. Klemir and others: practical Biological chemistry.

5. Practical Biochemistry – Koch and Hank Dunn and Drell.

6. Practical Biochemistry-Sawhney (2000)

7. Experimental Biochemistry by BS Rao and V Deshpande, 2005, IK Int’l Pvt Ltd, Bangalore

List of paper setters

Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, AP (Biochemistry)

1. Prof D Siva Prasad

2. Prof T Ramana

3. Prof A Rama Rao

4. Prof T Hemalatha

5. Dr A Raghava Rao

Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 005 (Biochemistry)

1. Prof P Maruti Mohan

2. Prof SS singh

3. Prof Pratap Rudra

4. Prof Shobhanadithya

5. Prof Ramana Devi

Gulbargha University, Gulbargha, Karnataka State

1. Prof V Mulimani

2. Prof Karegouder

3. Dr A Sreeramulu

4. Dr J Lalitha

5. Dr K Parama Jyothi

Bangalore University, Ambedkar Road, Bangalore 1.

1. Prof NH Manjunath

2. Prof N Ramachandra Swamy

3. Dr V Devaraj

4. Dr C Karegar

University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka State.

1. Prof Cletus De Souza

2. Prof M Karunakumar

3. Prof N Viswanath

4. Dr Kemparaj D

Sri Krishna devaraya University, Ananthapur

1. Prof D Sarala kumari

2. Prof N Laxmidevi

3. Prof N Ch Varadachryulu

4.Prof C Suresh

Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa

1. Prof S Valli

2. Dr AD Rao

3. Dr LV Reddy

University of Hyderabad, Gachibouli, Hyderabad- 134

1. Prof Siva Kumar

2. Prof S Dayananda

3. Prof P Reddanna

4. Prof A Ramaiah

5. Dr S Rajagopal

6. Prof Prakash Babu

7. Dr Y Suresh.